The concept of ecological imperialism is seemingly unavoidable in our time. Obvious cases are all around us. The invasion and occupation of Iraq was, at least in part, over oil. Instances of ecological imperialism do not, however, stop with Iraq. Whether it is the renewed scramble for Africa, the flooding of the global commons with carbon dioxide, or biopiracy aimed at third world germplasm, ecological imperialism is endemic within a global economy predicated on accumulation. While the appropriation of resources from distant lands has taken place throughout human history, the origins and ongoing growth of capitalism are dependent upon further ecological exploitation and unequal ecological exchange. It takes different forms, depending upon the historical context and demands of economic production, but it continues to operate in order to funnel resources- land, raw materials, and/or labor- into the process of capital accumulation.